Involuntary urination, commonly known as urinary incontinence, is any uncontrolled pee leaking. It’s a common and distressing issue that can have a significant influence on one’s quality of life. It has been acknowledged as a critical issue in the field of geriatric medicine. Enuresis is a term that is commonly used to describe urine incontinence in children, such as nocturnal enuresis bedwetting.
Urinary incontinence can be divided into four categories
Incomplete closure of the urinary sphincter due to abnormalities with the sphincter or insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles supporting it causes stress incontinence, also known as effort incontinence. When urine escapes during activities that increase intra-abdominal pressure, such as coughing, sneezing, or bearing down, this is known as stress incontinence.
Urge incontinence is involuntary leakage of pee caused by a sudden desire or urge to urinate, which is mainly caused by overactive bladder syndrome.
Overflow incontinence is incontinence that occurs without a need to urinate and without the need to do any physical exercises. Under-active bladder syndrome is another name for it. This usually happens when the bladder outlet is obstructed for a long time or when disorders affect the neurons that supply the urine bladder. The pee extends the bladder without the individual feeling the pressure, and the urethral sphincter’s ability to hold it back is eventually overwhelmed.
Mixed incontinence is a type of incontinence that has symptoms of several different types of incontinence. It’s frequent among the older female population, and urine retention can make things worse.
Management Of Urinary Incontinence
Conservative treatment, behavioral therapy, bladder retraining, pelvic floor therapy, collecting devices for males, fixer-occluder devices for incontinence (in men), medicines, and surgery are among the therapeutic options available. Nonpharmacological and pharmacological therapies for UI in non-pregnant women are both effective, according to a 2018 systematic review update. Except for hormones and periurethral bulking agents, all treatments are more effective than none in improving or curing UI symptoms and achieving patient satisfaction. The accuracy of diagnoses is critical to treatment success.
Fesoterodine, tolterodine, and oxybutynin are some of the drugs used to treat urine incontinence. These drugs act by relaxing the bladder’s smooth muscle. While some of these drugs appear to provide a minor advantage, the possibility of side effects remains a concern. Treatments work for around one out of every ten patients, and all medications are equally effective.
Medications are not suggested for those who have stress incontinence; instead, they are recommended for people who have urge incontinence and have not improved with bladder training.