Types of Aphasia is the inability to express or understand spoken or written language, either partially or completely. Damage to the parts of the brain that control language causes it.
- Reading, writing, speaking, understanding, and repeating words may be challenging for some people.
- Doctors can typically figure out what’s wrong by asking the patient questions.
- Imaging tests are carried out, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- Many persons with aphasia can benefit from speech therapy.
The left side of the brain controls language function in right-handed persons and around two-thirds of left-handed people (left cerebral hemisphere). The right half of the brain controls much of the language function in the other third of left-handed people. As a result, the following regions of the brain influence language function in most people:
- The Broca region is a part of the left frontal lobe.
- The Wernicke region is a section of the left temporal lobe.
- The left parietal lobe’s lower back section (next to the Wernicke area)
- The ties that bind these locations
Any damage to one of these areas impairs at least some aspects of language function. Writing and speech are usually affected in the same way.
Aphasia can be caused by a wide variety of factors.
Aphasia is most commonly caused by conditions that do not cause permanent damage, such as the following:
- A stroke
- A head injury
- A brain infection (encephalitis
Aphasia can deteriorate over time if it is caused by a progressive condition (such as a growing brain tumor). As the tumor grows larger, it may exert greater pressure on the parts of the brain that control language function, impairing the capacity to express and understand the language even more. Aphasia that worsens over time can be caused by certain types of dementia. Language expression and comprehension are challenging for people with aphasia. However, the nature and degree of difficulty differ. The diversity reflects the multifaceted character of language use.
Types of Aphasia
Wernicke aphasia (receptive)
People have trouble understanding spoken and written language if the Wernicke region is injured. They normally speak with a natural cadence and fluency, yet their sentences come out as a jumble of words (sometimes referred to as word salad). They could not realize they were talking garbage. The majority of those affected are also unable to read. They write as fluently as they speak, but incomprehensibly.
Broca aphasia (expressive)
People may generally grasp the meaning of words and know how they wish to respond if the Broca area is injured. They are, however, having difficulties finding the right things to say. Their words are squeezed out slowly and laboriously, occasionally punctuated by expletives, yet they understand what they are saying. Speech is also devoid of its usual pace and emphasis. They have a hard time remembering phrases. The majority of those affected are also unable to write.
- Loss of capacity to read and understand written words (alexia)
- Anomia is the loss of the ability to recall or utter the names of items. Some people with anomia are unable to recollect the correct term at all. Others have a thought but are unable to express it. People with anomia tend to speak well, but they utilize meaningless phrases or explain things in a roundabout way. Anomia affects the majority of people with aphasia. Anomic aphasia is the name for this type of aphasia.
Diagnosis of Aphaxia
- A doctor’s opinion
- Brain function assessments that are standardized
- Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are examples of imaging tests.
Doctors can usually detect aphasia by conversing with the patient and asking a few questions. They must, however, ensure that the apparent language impairments are not caused by hearing or vision problems, as well as muscle or nerve abnormalities that influence speech or writing, such as dysarthria. Dysarthria is a speech disorder caused by injury to the nerves and muscles that control one’s ability to speak—that is, the ability to physically pronounce sounds and words. Aphasia is a language condition that results from a brain malfunction that affects comprehension, thought, and word recognition.
Doctors assess how fluently people talk, if they have difficulty starting to speak, and whether they have trouble finding words, naming objects, or repeating phrases. Doctors also assess how effectively people comprehend what is being stated to them, such as if they can comprehend and execute a directive. The participants are invited to write and read aloud.
A neuropsychologist or a speech and language therapist may provide certain standardized tests of brain function (neuropsychologic testing). Neuropsychological testing can reveal how different parts of the brain are working. These tests can aid clinicians in detecting aphasia with relatively minor symptoms. These tests also assist doctors in planning treatment and determining the likelihood of recovery.
To determine what type of brain injury caused the aphasia, imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are utilized. Depending on the suspected reason, additional tests may be performed.
Prognosis of Aphasia
The following factors determine how successfully a person recovers:
The damage’s cause, extent, and location
The degree to which language is impaired
The treatment’s outcome
The person’s age, education, and overall health all play a role, albeit to a lesser extent.Even when the brain has been badly injured, children under the age of eight often regain the ability to utilize language. The majority of healing happens in the first three months for persons over the age of eight, but they may continue to improve to some extent for up to a year.
Treatment of Aphasia
Certain types of aphasia can be effectively treated. Corticosteroids, for example, can reduce swelling in the brain and improve language function if a tumor causes it. When other causes of aphasia (such as a stroke) are treated, the aphasia may improve more slowly or only partially.
Speech therapists can assist persons who develop aphasia as a result of brain damage caused by diseases that do not advance. People are usually able to participate in therapy as soon as they are able. The earlier therapy is started, the more successful it is; yet, it might be beneficial even if it is started late.