Psychiatric nursing review notes an interpersonal process whereby the professional nurse practitioner, through the therapeutic use of self art and nursing theories (science), assists clients to achieve psychosocial well being.

Mental health balance in a person’s internal life and adaptation to reality mental ill-health state of imbalance characterized by a disturbance in a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behavior, poverty, and abuses are major risk factors.


Mental hygiene measures to promote mental health prevent mental illness and suffering and facilitate rehabilitation and if necessary find meaning in these experiences. The main tool for the therapeutic use of self. It requires self-awareness.

Methods to increase self-awareness
Introspection, Discussion, Experience, Roleplay

Neurosis any long term mental or behavioral d/o in which contact with reality has retained the condition is recognized by the patient as abnormal. Essentially features anxiety or behavior exaggerated designed to avoid anxiety ( anxiety d/o; hysteria to conversion d/o, amnesia, fugue, multiple personalities, and depersonalization- dissociative. Result of an inappropriate early program in psychoanalysis little value.

Benefits from Behavior Therapy

Psychosis mental or behavioral disorder wherein the patient loses contact with reality. Presence of delusions, hallucinations, severe thought disturbances, alteration of mood, poverty of thought, and abnormal behavior (schizophrenia, the major disorder of effect ( manic – depression), major paranoid states, and organic mental disorder. Benefits from psychoanalysis and antipsychotics.

Common Behavioral Signs and Symptoms

Disturbances in perception
Illusion misinterpretation of an actual external stimuli
Hallucinations false sensory perception in the absence of external stimuli
Disturbances in thinking and speech
neologism coining of words that people do not understand
Circumstantiality over the inclusion of inappropriate thoughts and details
Word salad an incoherent mixture of words and phrases with no logical sequence
Verbigeration meaningless repetition of words and phrases
Perseveration the persistence of a response to a previous question
Echolalia pathological repetition of words of others
Aphasia speech difficulty and disturbance
Expressive, receptive or global
Flight of ideas shifting of one topic from one subject to another
Looseness of association incoherent, the illogical flow of thoughts(unrelated way)
Clang association the sound of the word gives direction to the flow of thought
Delusion persistent false belief, rigidly held
Delusions of grandeur special /important in a way
Persecutory threatened
Ideas of reference-situation/events.
Somatic body reacting in a particular way
Magical thinking primitive thought process thoughts alone can change events
Autistic thinking regressive thought process-subjective interpretations not validated with objective reality

Disturbances of effect
Inappropriate disharmony between the stimuli and the emotional reaction
Blunted affect the severe reduction in emotional reaction
Flat affect absence or near absence of emotional reaction
Apathy dulled emotional tone
Depersonalization the feeling of strangeness from one’s self
Derealization the feeling of strangeness towards the environment
Agnosia lack of sensory stimuli integration

Disturbances in motor activity
Echopraxia imitation of the posture of others
Waxy flexibility maintaining position for a long period of time
Ataxia Loss of balance
Akathesia extreme restlessness
Dystonia uncoordinated spastic movements of the body
Tardive dyskinesia involuntary twitching or muscle movements
Apraxia involuntary unpurposeful movements

Disturbances in memory
Confabulation filling of memory gaps
Déjà vu – 2 time-like feeling

Jamais vu not having been to the place one has been before
Amnesia memory loss (inability to recall past events)
Retrograde distant past
Anterograde immediate past
Anomia lack of memory of items

Dynamics of Human Behavior

Personality integration of systems and habits representing individuals characteristic adjustment to his environment expressed through behavior. Individualistic, unique, predictable(stability and consistency).Determinants are psychological, cultural, biological ( not inherited), and familial. Analysis of potential support systems or stressors, potential risk factors.

The satisfaction of human needs!

  1. Physiological(oxygen , fluids, nutrition, temp.,elimination,shelter,rest,sex)
  2. Safety and security(physical and psychological)
  3. Love and belongingness
  4. Self-esteem
  5. Self –actualization

Three divisions of the mind

A conscious focus on awareness

Subconscious recalled at will

Unconscious never recalled / largest part
Learning change in behavior through – insight, relearning and remotivation

Practice Question Related to Fundamental Nursing, Medical Surgical Nursing, Pscyhiatric Nursing and Communicable Disease.

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