Multiple sclerosis (MS)

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By nclexnursing

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological illness that causes scarring on neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis (ms) is a brain and spinal cord illness that affects the neurological system. The membrane that covers and protects your nerve cells, the myelin sheath, is damaged. These scars obstruct the nerves’ ability to function correctly. Scarring is referred to as sclerosis.

You may experience eye issues, weird sensations, clumsy or weak motions, or difficulty thinking clearly.

  • At different periods, you’ll experience different symptoms.
  • Symptoms normally come and go, and you might feel fine in between them.
  • MS has a tendency to worsen over time.
  • An MRI of the brain and spinal cord is used to make the diagnosis.
  • There are several medications that can help, but there is no cure.

What causes multiple sclerosis (MS)?

Doctors are baffled as to what causes MS. Most experts, however, feel that your immune system assaults your own body’s tissues as if they weren’t your own. This is related to an autoimmune response. The immune system attacks and damages nerves in the brain and spinal cord when you have MS.

Multiple Sclerosis MS
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Signs and symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis?

Because MS affects multiple nerves, symptoms vary from person to person. And the pattern of recurrence of symptoms varies.

Multiple sclerosis symptoms usually come suddenly (referred to as a flare) and then fade away (called remission). Between flares, you’re usually in decent health. Most people only have flares once or twice a year, but you may have more. A different part of your body may be affected by each flare. Flares can last from several days to several months.

Your symptoms may not go away completely between flares as time goes on. Symptoms in some people never go away. MS tends to get worse with time, regardless of your symptom pattern.

Early signs and symptoms of MS include:

  • Numbness or tingling in your arms, legs, chest, back, or face
  • Arms or legs shakiness, clumsiness, or stiffness
  • When moving one eye, you may notice blind patches, fuzzy vision, or pain.
  • Doubtful perception (seeing two of one thing)
  • Burning or electric shock-like symptoms in your back, legs, or arm that may occur on their own, when you touch something, or when you bend your neck

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Symptoms of MS later in life may include:

  • Movements that are shaky and erratic
  • Muscle cramps and weakness, as well as being unable to move a part or all of your body
  • Walking and balance are both tough.
  • You are fatigued and feeble.
  • Speech that is slow and slurred
  • Mood swings or depression
  • Thinking, remembering, paying attention, or making decisions are all difficult tasks.
  • Dizziness
  • Controlling urine (peeing) or bowel motions is a problem for some people (pooping)
  • When you’re overheated, such as on a hot day or when you have a fever, your symptoms may worsen.

Diagnosis Of MS

It’s difficult to detect if you have MS. MS is diagnosed by your doctor based on your symptoms, which are usually:

An MRI scan of the brain and spinal cord was performed.
A spinal tap may be necessary on occasion.

Doctors use the following medications to treatment symptom of multple sclerosis

Corticosteroids are a type of medicine that is used to treat inflammation.
If corticosteroids don’t work, doctors may try plasma exchange, a blood treatment.

Doctors employ a variety of drugs to inhibit your immune system from attacking your nerves and assist prevent flare-ups of symptoms.

Other medications may be prescribed to treat specific symptoms such as muscle tightness, tingling sensations, fatigue, and depression.

You can help avoid disability and make life simpler for those with MS by:

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
  • Taking part in physical therapy
  • For as long as feasible, go for a solo walk.
  • Taking hot baths or showers to avoid the heat
  • Smoking cessation
  • Supplementing with vitamin D

Nursing Exam

Myelin is the substance that covers most nerve fibers. This covering is called the myelin sheath. In multiple sclerosis (MS), patches of myelin are damaged or destroyed. The cause of MS is unknown but may involve which of the following?

A. Spinal fluid loss
B. An autoimmune reaction
C. A tumor of the nervous system
D. Poor nutrition early in life

The Correct Answer is B: An autoimmune reaction. A virus or unknown substance may have stimulated the immune system to attack the body’s own tissues, resulting in inflammation, which damages the myelin sheath and the nerve fiber under it. A, C, and D are incorrect.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is rarer in people who grow up in tropical climates than in those who grow up in more temperate climates. This difference may be related to which of the following factors?

A. Less exposure to infections
B. More fruit in the diet
C. Increased exposure to sunlight
D. Increased exercise

The Correct Answer is C. Sunlight exposure. The body produces vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunshine. As a result, persons who grow up in temperate settings may have reduced levels of vitamin D. Multiple sclerosis is more common in people who have a low vitamin D level. A B and D are all erroneous.

Numerous drugs may be given for a short time to help relieve symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) that interfere with functioning. Which of the following drugs can relieve immediate symptoms such as loss of vision, strength, or coordination?

A. Glatiramir acetate
B. Interferon-beta injections
C. Immune globulin

The Correct Answer is D. To treat acute symptoms, corticosteroids such as methylprednisone given intravenously or prednisone are taken orally may be used. Choices A, B, and C may help you avoid relapse in the future.