Large Head is Macrocephaly

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By nclexnursing

The precise term for a large head is macrocephaly. Macrocephaly can be caused by genetic or other problems, or it might be normal. The diagnosis is made either before or after birth using regular ultrasound examinations or by measuring the head circumference. Doctors typically utilize imaging tests to look for brain abnormalities, as well as blood testing to rule out other possibilities. Treatment for macrocephaly is determined by the reason, and in certain cases, no treatment is required if no issues are discovered.

Macrocephaly is a condition that affects the brain.

  • Disproportionate: The child’s head is too big for his or her total size.
  • Appropriate: The head appears to be the right size for the body (in other words, the child has a large body and a large head).

Many persons who have huge heads or skulls are in good health. An enlarged brain (megalencephaly), water on the brain (hydrocephalus), overgrowth of the bones of the skull (cranial hyperostosis), or other diseases can cause abnormal macrocephaly. These diseases could be the result of a child’s inherited or acquired illnesses before or after birth.

Diagnosis of Macrocephaly

Before birth. A standard prenatal ultrasound examination performed late in the second trimester or early in the third trimester can sometimes detect macrocephaly.

After birth. During standard medical examinations, doctors measure a baby’s head circumference (the measurement of the head around its biggest area). When the head circumference is much larger than the normal range for babies of same-sex, age, and ethnic group in the location where the baby resides, it is diagnosed as microcephaly. Doctors consider the head circumference of the baby’s parents and grandparents when making the diagnosis because a slightly larger head size may run in the family.

Treatment of Macrocephaly

Treatment for macrocephaly is determined by the underlying cause. There are situations when no treatment is required. Treatment, including surgery, may be required if the cause is an abnormality such as hydrocephalus.

Nclex Nursing Exam

Vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) is a symptom of Kawasaki’s illness. Inflammation of the blood vessels is more likely to create major issues in which of the following body parts?

A. Esophagus

B. Liver

C. Heart

D. Spleen

The correct answer is C. If Kawasaki’s illness is not treated, one out of every four children will develop cardiac difficulties. The most serious of them is a bulge in the wall of a coronary artery (coronary artery aneurysm), which has the potential to burst or generate a blood clot, which can lead to heart attack and sudden death in a few of these children. A, B, and D are all incorrect.

Kawasaki’s illness treatment is started as soon as possible. Immunoglobulin in high dosages is a basis of early treatment. Which of the following medications is also administered as soon as feasible and can be taken for a long time?

A. Acetaminophen
B. Aspirin
C. Ibuprofen
D. Prednisone

The correct answer is B. From days 1 to 4, patients are given high doses of aspirin and immune globulin orally. The aspirin dose is reduced once the child has not had a fever for 4 to 5 days, but it must be continued for at least 8 weeks from the start of the disease. Long-term aspirin therapy is required for children with coronary artery anomalies. A, C, and D are all erroneous.

Which of the following categories has the highest risk of contracting Kawasaki disease?

A. Infant boys between the ages of 0 and 1 year

B. Infant females between the ages of 0 and 1 year

C. Boys between the ages of one and eight years

D. Girls between the ages of one and eight years

The correct answer is C. The majority of children with Kawasaki disease are between the ages of one and eight. Around one-and-a-half times as many males as girls are impacted. The condition can affect infants and teenagers, and it is more common in children of Japanese origin. Kawasaki disease can strike at any time of year, but it is more common in the spring and winter. A, B, and D are all erroneous.

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