Client Needs | Categories and Subcategories

The health needs of clients are grouped under four broad categories: (1) safe, effective care environment; (2) health promotion and maintenance; (3) psychosocial integrity; and (4) physiologic integrity.

A. Safe, Effective Care Environment

Management of Care Providing and directing nursing care that enhances the care delivery to protect patients, family, and health care personnel. Similar content covers but is not limited to

  • Advance Directives
  • Advocacy
  • Case Management
  • Client Rights
  • Collaboration with Multidisciplinary Team
  • Concepts of Management
  • Confidentiality/Information Security
  • Consultation
  • Continuity of Care
  • Delegation
  • Establishing Priorities
  • Ethical Practice
  • Informed Consent
  • Information Technology
  • Legal Rights and Responsibilities
  • Performance Improvement (Quality Improvement)
  • Referrals
  • Supervision
Client Needs | Physiological Integrity
Client Needs

Safety and Infection Control Protecting patients, family, and health care personnel from health and environmental hazards. Related content covers but is not limited to

  • Accident/Injury Prevention
  • Emergency Response Plan
  • Ergonomic Principles
  • Error Prevention
  • Handling Hazardous and Infectious Materials
  • Home Safety
  • Reporting of Incident/Event/Irregular Occurrence/Variance
  • Safe Use of Equipment
  • Security Plan
  • Standard Precautions/Transmission-Based Precautions/Surgical Asepsis
  • Use of Restraints/Safety Devices

B. Health Promotion and Maintenance


The nurse gives and directs nursing care of the patient and family other that incorporate the knowledge of predicted growth and development teachings, prevention and early discovery of health problems, and strategies to obtain optimal wellness. Related content covers but is not limited to:

  • Aging Process
  • Ante and Intra/Postpartum and Newborn Care
  • Developmental Stages and Transitions
  • Health and Wellness
  • Health Promotion/Disease Prevention
  • Health Screening
  • High-Risk Behaviors
  • Lifestyle Choices
  • Principles of Teaching/Learning
  • Self-Care
  • Techniques of Physical Assessment

C. Psychosocial Integrity


The nurse gives and directs nursing care that encourages and supports the emotional, mental, and social well-being of the patient and family experiencing stressful events and patients with acute and chronic mental illness. Relevant content covers but is not limited to

  • Abuse/Neglect
  • Behavioral Interventions
  • Chemical and Other Dependencies
  • Coping Mechanisms
  • Crisis Intervention
  • Cultural Diversity
  • End of Life Care
  • Family Dynamics
  • Grief and Loss
  • Mental Health Concept
  • Religious and Spiritual Influences on Health
  • Sensory/Perceptual Alterations
  • Stress Management
  • Support Systems
  • Therapeutic Communication
  • Therapeutic Environment

D. Physiological Integrity

The nurse improves physical health and wellness by providing care and comfort, reducing patient risk potential, and managing health changes.

1. Basic Care and Comfort. Providing support and assistance in the completion of activities of daily living. Similar content covers but is not limited to

  • Assistive Devices
  • Elimination
  • Mobility/Immobility
  • Non-Pharmacological Comfort Interventions
  • Nutrition and Oral Hydration
  • Personal Hygiene
  • Rest and Sleep

2. Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies—Providing care related to the administration of medications and parenteral therapies. Similar content covers but is not limited to

  • Adverse Effects/Contraindications/Side Effects/Interactions
  • Blood and Blood Products
  • Central Venous Access Devices
  • Dosage Calculation
  • Expected Actions/Outcomes
  • Medication Administration
  • Parenteral/Intravenous Therapies
  • Pharmacologic Agents/Actions
  • Pharmacological Pain Management
  • Total Parenteral Nutrition

3. Reduction of Risk Potential. Reducing the likelihood that patients will incur complications or health problems linked to existing conditions, treatments, or procedures. Related content covers but is not limited to

  • Changes/Abnormalities in Vital Signs
  • Diagnostic Tests
  • Laboratory Values
  • Possible for Alterations in Body Systems
  • Possible for Complications of Diagnostic Tests. Treatments and Procedures
  • Possible for Complications from Surgical Procedures and Health Changes
  • ystem Specipic Assessments
  • Therapeutic Methods

4. Physiological Adaptation Managing and implementing care for patients with acute, chronic, or life-threatening physical health conditions. Similar content covers but is not limited to

  • Alterations in Body Systems
  • Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances
  • Hemodynamics
  • Illness Management
  • Medical Emergencies
  • Pathophysiology
  • Unexpected Response to Therapies

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