THE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DISCIPLINES for your nursing review. The goal of this site is to assist you in gaining a better understanding of the human body. Such comprehension necessitates an awareness of the structure and function of distinct body parts. Anatomy is the study of bodily structure, whereas physiology is the study of body functions. These two branches of biology are intertwined. In fact, learning about function without first understanding structure is very impossible; consider how difficult it would be to comprehend how bones support the body without first understanding that they are solid structures made up of a protein matrix and minerals.
On the other hand, a lack of understanding of function makes studying structure very difficult. It is possible to learn the names of all the muscles and bones in the human body, but without understanding how each of these structures allows us to move, these names are almost meaningless. The structure and function of the human body can be understood at various levels, including 1) organ systems; 2) specific organs; 3) tissues; 4) cells; and 5) molecules, as you will soon discover.
For thousands of years, humans have been researching the structure of the human body. For a long time, these investigations were limited to macroscopic or gross anatomy, which necessitated the dissection of cadavers. The word anatomy comes from a Greek word that means “I cut up.” Cadaver dissections are still useful for studying the human body plan, but scale models and virtual representations of human structure, as well as X-ray, ultrasound, and other imaging technologies, may now be used to study human anatomy in living people. The invention of microscopes allowed for microscopic investigations to be added to anatomy. This encompasses tissue (histology) and cell (cytology) research (cytology).
The mechanical, physical, and biochemical functioning of humans at each of the aforementioned levels of structure are the focus of human physiology. Physiology, in other terms, is the application of chemistry and physics to describe how the human body functions.
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STUDYING HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY IN A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Learning about a subject is usually made easier by first establishing a conceptual framework, which is a collection of major concepts or ideas that serve as a basis for a specific subject. Organ systems, or groups of organs that serve a certain process or set of processes, are usually the focus of a study of human anatomy and physiology. The following are the primary organ systems:
- Integumentary (Skin)
Our research of these systems will focus on three key elements that will assist you in organizing data.
1. Function is determined by the structure.
2. The human body is divided into several levels.
3. Organ systems carry out a variety of operations that keep the body in a state of homeostasis.
THE FUNCTION IS DETERMINED BY THE STRUCTURE.
The structure of a feature defines its function, according to one of biology’s fundamental rules. In the combined study of human anatomy and physiology, this issue is very essential. This link holds true for entire bodies as well as individual body components. It works on a macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular level as well. Examining the structures in Figure 1.1 provides a simple illustration of this notion. Which of these appears to be the best option for transporting liquids? Which of the two is better for keeping liquids? Keep this relationship in mind while you explore the structure and function of the body. It will assist you in both learning anatomy and physiology.
MULTIPLE ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS
Anatomy and physiology are often investigated at multiple layers, such as the systemic, organ, tissue, cell, and chemical levels, as mentioned in the first section of this chapter. The human body can be reduced to a chemical mixture, consisting of individual molecules of water, protein, lipids, and other substances. Organelles, minute structures that make up individual cells, are formed when the chemicals combine. Tissues are collections of cells that execute a shared function, such as epithelial, muscular, nerve, and connective tissues. Organs are formed when different tissue types join to form organs, and an organ system is a group of organs that work together to accomplish shared activities. All of these levels will be investigated as part of our structural and functional research.