The Nurse’s Role as a Patient Advocate

An advocate, according to the definition, is a person who represents another person’s interests in court. Advocacy in the nursing profession relates to the preservation of human dignity, the development of patient equity, and the provision of relief from suffering. It’s also about securing that people have the freedom to make their own health decisions. … Read more

Four Categories of Urinary Incontinence

Involuntary urination, commonly known as urinary incontinence, is any uncontrolled pee leaking. It’s a common and distressing issue that can have a significant influence on one’s quality of life. It has been acknowledged as a critical issue in the field of geriatric medicine. Enuresis is a term that is commonly used to describe urine incontinence … Read more

Types of Asepsis

The state of being devoid of disease-causing pollutants (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) or avoiding contact with microorganisms is referred to as asepsis. Those systems used to promote or induce asepsis in an operating field in surgery or medicine to stop infection are commonly referred to as asepsis. Asepsis in medicine Medical asepsis, … Read more

Hemolytic transfusion reaction

After a blood transfusion, a hemolytic transfusion response is a dangerous complication that can happen. The reaction occurs when the body’s immune system kills the red blood cells donated during the transfusion. Hemolysis is the term for the method of destroying red blood cells. Other allergic transfusion responses that do not result in hemolysis exist. … Read more


When the body’s immune system recognizes dangerous molecules called antigens, it produces an antibody. Microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals are examples of antigens. Antibodies are created when the immune system incorrectly interprets healthy tissue as a threat is referred to as an autoimmune disease. Antibodies are one-of-a-kind proteins that defend the body … Read more

Hypokalemia Low blood potassium

Hypokalemia Low blood potassium Low blood potassium level is when the blood’s amount is lower than usual this condition is called hypokalemia.  Causes Potassium is an electrolyte (mineral). It is needed for cells to function correctly. You get potassium through food. The kidneys remove excess potassium through the urinary system to keep a proper balance … Read more

Medical-Surgical Nursing Notes

Medical Nursing Notes. In a patient with hypokalemia, serum potassium level below 3.5 mEq/L, exhibiting signs and symptoms involve muscle weakness and cardiac arrhythmias. During cardiac arrest, if an I.V. route is unavailable, epinephrine can be administered endotracheally. Pernicious anemia results from the failure to absorb vitamin B12 in the G.I. tract and primarily causes … Read more