Aplastic anemia is a condition in which the cells that develop into mature blood cells in the bone marrow are destroyed, resulting in a lack of red blood cells, white blood cells, and/or platelets.
The bone marrow can shut down if the stem cells (bone marrow cells) that develop into mature blood cells and platelets are injured or inhibited. Aplastic anemia is a kind of bone marrow failure.
Aplastic anemia is a kind of anemia that arises when all types of blood cells are produced insufficiently. Pure red blood cell aplasia is a disorder in which only red blood cell production is suppressed.
When the cause of aplastic anemia cannot be determined (known as idiopathic aplastic anemia), it is most likely due to an autoimmune illness in which the immune system inhibits bone marrow stem cells.
Other causes include
Virus infections such as parvovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus
Exposure to radiation
Toxic substances (such as benzene)
Chemotherapy and other medications (such as chloramphenicol)
Symptoms of Aplastic Anemia
Aplastic anemia symptoms usually appear gradually over weeks to months.
Fatigue, weakness, and paleness are all symptoms of anemia. Increased susceptibility to infection is caused by leukopenia. Thrombocytopenia makes bruising and bleeding easy.
Aplastic Anemia Diagnosis
Aplastic anemia is diagnosed by your doctor based on your medical and family history, physical examination, and test results. Your doctor can establish a treatment plan for you once he or she understands the cause and severity of your disease. Blood transfusions, blood, and marrow stem cell transplants, and medications are all options for treatment.
- Tests on the blood
- Examination of the bone marrow
- Blood tests are performed on persons who have anemic symptoms. A bone marrow examination is performed when blood tests reveal that all blood cell numbers have decreased.
Aplastic anemia is diagnosed when a sample of bone marrow (bone marrow biopsy) shows a dramatic decrease in bone marrow cells under a microscope.
Aplastic Anemia Treatment
Stem cell transplantation
People with severe aplastic anemia may die if they are not treated right away. Red blood cell, platelet, and growth factor transfusions can temporarily boost the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Aplastic anemia is commonly treated with stem cell transplantation because it has the potential to cure the disease, especially in younger persons who have a matched stem cell donor. Antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine are used to suppress the immune system and allow bone marrow stem cells to regrow if transplantation is not possible.
Nclex Nursing Exam Aplastic Anemia
Neutropenia is a condition in which the quantity of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, in the blood is unusually low. The presence of which of the following is frequently the initial sign of neutropenia?
A. Abnormally low white blood cell count
B. Chronic fatigue
C. Frequent infections
D. Racing heartbeat
The Correct Answer is C.Because neutropenia has no specific symptoms, it is frequently overlooked by clinicians unless patients have a history of frequent or uncommon illnesses. Infections are sometimes the first sign of a condition. Option A is the incorrect answer. A complete blood count is frequently ordered by doctors in response to frequent or uncommon illnesses. Neutropenia is diagnosed by a low neutrophil count. B and D are wrong answers.
Neutropenia is sometimes a side effect of another disorder’s treatment. As a result of treatment for which of the following conditions, neutropenia may occur as a side effect?
D. Heart failure
The Correct Answer B.Neutropenia is a side effect of cancer and its treatment with chemotherapy or radiation. They may reduce the ability of the bone marrow to create neutrophils. A, C, and D are all erroneous.
Because their bodies lack the ability to combat invading pathogens, people with severe neutropenia can die quickly. These people are usually admitted to the hospital and given which of the following treatments?
B. Bone marrow transplantation
D. Growth factors
The Correct Answer is A. Strong antibiotics are frequently given to people with severe neutropenia to help them fight off invading pathogens. Choice B: Although bone marrow is not used to treat neutropenia, it may be used to treat its causes. If a person’s neutropenia is caused by an autoimmune illness, corticosteroids may assist. Choice D: Growth factors, which boost the bone marrow’s production of white blood cells, can be beneficial in some cases.