Medical-Surgical Nursing Bullets Part 3
This nclex nursing related to medical surgical nursing subject to pleuritis, potassium chloride, arterial blood, vitamin c deficiency, and pulmonary embolism.
pH PaCO2 HCO3 respiratory acidosis compensated
pH PaCO2 HCO3 respiratory alkalosis compensated
pH PaCO2 HCO3 metabolic acidosis compensated
pH PaCO2 HCO3 metabolic alkalosis compensated.
Polyuria is a urine output of 2,500 ml or more within 24 hours.
A sign of pleuritis is chest pain that is usually unilateral and related to respiratory movement.
If a patient has a gastric drainage tube in order the nurse should anticipate the physician to order potassium chloride.
An increased pulse rate is one of the first signs of respiratory difficulty. It occurs because the guts attempt to catch up on a decreased oxygen supply to the tissues by pumping more blood.
In an adult, a hemoglobin level beneath 11 mg/dl suggests iron deficiency anemia and the need for further evaluation.
The typical partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is 95 mm Hg (plus or minus 5 mm Hg).
Vitamin C deficiency is distinguished by slowly healing wounds, bright red hair follicles, easy bruising, brittle bones, pinpoint peripheral hemorrhages, and friable gums with loosened teeth.
The clinical manifestations of pulmonary embolism are constant but increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, and hemoptysis are common.
Conventionally, intraocular pressure is 12 to 20 mm Hg. It can be measured with a Schiøtz tonometer.
In early hemorrhagic shock, blood pressure may be constant, but respiratory and pulse rates are hasty. The patient may report thirst and may have clammy skin and piloerection (goosebumps). Cool, moist, pale skin, as exist in shock, results from the diversion of blood from the skin to the major organs.
To assess capillary refill (CRT) a prolonged CRT may indicate the presence of circulatory shock, the nurse carries out pressure over the nail bed until blanching occurs quickly.
Normal capillary refill is less than 3 seconds.
Except for patients with renal failure, urine output of less than 30 ml/hour represent dehydration, and the potential for shock.
Hip fractures are the most common fracture in seniors patients. Osteoporosis weakens the bones, predisposing these patients to fracture, which usually caused by a fall.
Before angiography, the nurse should request the patient whether he’s allergic to the dye, shellfish, or iodine and advise him to take nothing by mouth for 8 hours before the procedure.
If a water-based medium was used during myelography, the patient last on bed rest for 6 to 8 hours, with the head of the bed elevated 30 to 45 degrees. If an oil-based medium was used, the patient remains flat in bed for six to 24 hours.
The above amputation is determined by estimating the maximum viable tissue (tissue with adequate circulation) needed to develop a functional stump.
Heparin sodium is the treatment of thromboembolic associate atrial fibrillation is included in the dialysate used for renal dialysis.
Paroxysmal nocturnal is sudden shortness of breath dyspnea may indicate heart failure.
A patient who takes a cardiac glycoside, an organic compound that increases the output force of the heart such as digoxin, should consume a diet that includes high-potassium foods.
The nurse should limit tracheobronchial suctioning clearing the airway to improve oxygenation takes 10 to 15 seconds and should make only two passes.
Signs and symptoms of pneumothorax include tachypnea, fatigue, shortness of breath, restlessness, hypotension, and tracheal deviation.
The cardinal sign of toxic shock syndrome is a rapid onset of a high fever.
A key sign of peptic ulcer is hematemesis the vomiting of blood which can be bright red or dark red, with the consistency of coffee grounds.
Signs and symptoms of a perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a pain to the back and shoulder, include sudden, severe abdominal pain; lack of appetite, vomiting; and an extremely tender, rigid (boardlike) abdomen.
Constipation is a common adverse effect of aluminum hydroxide is used to treat heartburn and acid indigestion.
For the first 24 hours after myocardial infarction, the patient should use a suitable bedside commode and walk to the toilet, bathing, and taking short walks.
After a myocardial infarction, the patient should avoid overexertion repetitive movements and add a new activity daily as tolerated without dyspnea.
In a patient with a new myocardial infarction, shallow blood-tinged sputum suggests pulmonary edema.
In a patient who has acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the primary purpose of drugs is to avert secondary infections.
In a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, the immune system increases the risk of opportunistic infections such as thrush, pneumonia, cytomegalovirus, and pneumocystis carinii.
A patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may have rapid weight loss which is a sign of wasting syndrome.
If the body does not use glucose for energy it metabolizes fat and produces ketones.
Approximately 20% of inpatients with Guillain-Barré syndrome have residual deficits, such as mild motor weakness or diminished lower extremity reflexes.