Medical-Surgical Nursing Bullets Part 1
This nclexnursing is related to medical-surgical nursing bullets related to the subjects of blood glucose, shock, postural drainage, meningitis, and spasms.
During cardiac arrest, if an I.V. route is unavailable, epinephrine can be administered endotracheally.
Pernicious anemia results from the failure to soak up vitamin B12 within the alimentary canal and causes primarily GI and neurologic signs and symptoms.
A patient who has a pressure ulcer should consume a high-protein, high-calorie diet unless contraindicated.
The CK-MB isoenzyme level is used to assess tissue damage in myocardial infarction.
After a 12-hour fast, the normal fasting blood glucose level is 80 to 120 mg/dl.
Anuria is a daily urine output of fewer than 100 ml.
In remittent fever, the body temperature varies over a 24-hour period but remains elevated.
The risk of a fat embolism is greatest in the first 48 hours after the fracture of a long bone. It’s manifested by respiratory distress.
To help venous blood return in a patient who is in shock, the nurse should elevate the patient’s legs no more than 45 degrees. This procedure is contraindicated during a patient with a head injury.
The pulse deficit is the difference between the apical and radial pulse rates when taken simultaneously by two nurses.
To reduce the patient’s risk of vomiting and aspiration, the nurse should schedule postural drainage before meals or 2 to 4 hours after meals.
Blood pressure can be measured directly by intra-arterial insertion of a catheter connected to a pressure-monitoring device.
A positive Kernig’s sign, seen in meningitis, occurs when an effort to flex the hip of a recumbent patient causes painful spasms of the hamstring muscle and resistance to a further
extension of the leg at the knee.
In a patient with a fractured dislocated femur, treatment begins with reduction and immobilization of the affected leg.
Herniated nucleus pulposus (intervertebral disk) most commonly occurs in the lumbar and lumbosacral regions.
Laminectomy is the surgical removal of the herniated portion of an intervertebral disk.
Surgical treatment of a gastric ulcer includes severing the vagus nerve (vagotomy) to reduce the amount of gastric acid secreted by the gastric cells.
Valsalva’s maneuver is forced exhalation against a closed glottis, as when taking a deep breath, blowing air out, or bearing down.
Lidocaine (Xylocaine) is the drug of choice for reducing premature ventricular contractions.
A patient is at greatest risk of dying during the first 24 to 48 hours after myocardial infarction.
During a myocardial infarction, the left ventricle usually sustains the greatest damage.
The pain of a myocardial infarction results from myocardial ischemia caused by anoxia.
For a patient in cardiac arrest, the first priority is to establish an airway.
The universal sign for choking is clutching the hand to the throat.
For a patient who has heart failure or cardiogenic pulmonary edema, nursing interventions focus on decreasing venous return to the heart and increasing left ventricular output.
A positive tuberculin skin test is an induration of 10 mm or greater at the injection site.
The signs and symptoms of histoplasmosis, a chronic systemic fungal infection, resemble those of tuberculosis.
In burn victims, the leading cause of death is respiratory compromise. The second leading cause is infection.
The exocrine function of the pancreas is the secretion of enzymes used to digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
A patient who has hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) should consume a diet that’s moderately high in fat and high in carbohydrate and protein, and should eat the largest meal in the morning.
Esophageal balloon tamponade shouldn’t be inflated greater than 20 mm Hg.
Overproduction of prolactin by the pituitary gland can cause galactorrhea (excessive or abnormal lactation) and amenorrhea (absence of menstruation).
Intermittent claudication (pain during ambulation or another movement that’s relieved with rest) is a classic symptom of arterial insufficiency in the leg.
In bladder carcinoma, the most common finding is gross, painless hematuria.