Anatomy and Physiology Reviewer Full Summary

This nclex nursing is an anatomy and physiology reviewer subject to the body system, a component of homeostasis, feedback mechanism, body parts, and regions.

Human anatomy and physiology is the study of the structure and performance of the physical body.

Anatomy is the science that investigates the structure of the physical body.

Physiology is the science that investigates the method of functions of living things.

6 Structural Levels

  1. Chemical level are atoms combine to form molecules
  2. Cell level are molecule form organelles
  3. Tissue level is similar and surrounding material make up tissues
  4. Organ level are different tissue combine to form organs
  5. Organ system level are organs make up an organ system
  6. Organism are organs system make up an organism

Characteristics of Life

  1. The organization-specific interrelationships to perform specific functions.
  2. Metabolism is the use of energy to perform vital functions
  3. Responsiveness is a sense of changes in the environment that help maintain life.
  4. Growth is an increase in the size of all parts of the organism.
  5. Development is the changes an organism undergoes through to death.
  6. Reproduction is the formation of new organisms.

Homeostasis is the maintenance of a comparatively stable condition within the interior environment.

Components of Homeostasis

The receptor has monitored the value of a variable
Control Center (brain) establishes the set point around w/c the variable is maintained.
Effector (heart) changes the value of the variable
stimulus are changed variable. Initiates a homeostatic mechanism

Feedback Mechanism

  1. Negative Feed works to restore homeostasis by correcting a deficit within the body system.
  2. Positive Feedback is a deviation from a normal value occurs, the response of the system is to make the deviation even greater.

Prietal Membrane is outside

TERMINOLOGY OF THE BODY PLAN

Anatomical Position
Supine is faced upward
Prone is face downward

Directional Terms

• Inferior is below
• Superior is above
• Anterior is the front of the body
• (ventral) is toward the belly
• Posterior is back of the body
• (Dorsal) is toward the back
• Proximal is closer to point of attachment
• Distal is farther from point of attachment
• Lateral is the midline of the body
• Medial is toward o within the middle of the body
• Superficial is toward or on the surface
• Deep is away from the surface

Body Parts and Regions

Head, neck, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs

a. The four regions are right upper quadrant left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

b.The nine regions are the left iliac region, hypogastric region, right iliac region, left lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, left hypochondriac region, epigastric region, and right hypochondriac region

PLANES are composed at the sagittal plane, transverse and frontal.

Body Cavities

  1. Thoracic Cavity is ribs and diaphragm
  2. Abdominal Cavity is diaphragm and abdomen
  3. Pelvic Cavity Pelvic bones

Serous Membranes

  1. Trunk Cavities the lines the walls of the cavity
  2. Serous membranes secrete a fluid that fills the space between the parietal and visceral membranes. Protect organs from friction
  3. Pericardial cavity surrounds (heart), Pleural cavities surround (lungs) & Peritoneal Cavity surrounds (abdominal and pelvic).
  4. Mesentery helps in storing fat abdominal to supply the intestines in place provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerve to organs.
  5. Retroperitoneal Organs – behind the parietal peritoneum. *kidney, adrenal glands, pancreas, intestines, urinary bladder.

ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE BODY

  • Integumentary System that protects, regulate temp, prevent water loss
  • Skeletal that protection and support, allows body movements, store minerals, and fat.
  • Muscular that provides body movements, posture, and body heats.
  • Lymphatic made up of a large network of lymph that removes foreign substances from the absorbs fats combat disease blood, and maintains tissue fluid balance.
  • Respiratory that blood pH, exchange O2, CO2
  • Digestive that digest, absorb the nutrient, eliminate waste
  • Nervous that detect sensation, control movement, physiological processes & intellectual functions.
  • Endocrine that metabolism, growth, reproduction
  • Cardiovascular to transport nutrients, wastes, gases, and hormones. Immune response and regulate body temp.
  • The urinary system eliminates waste from the body waste from the blood and regulates blood pressure, ion balance, and water balance.
  • The reproductive female (genital system) is the site of fetal development, fertilization, hormones, produce milk, that influence sexual function and behavior.
  • The reproductive of the male produces sperm cells to the female produces hormones that influence sexual function and behavior.

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

  • Consist of hair, glands, and nails
  • Functions:
  • Protection from microorganism and UV light
  • Sensation-sensory receptors
  • Vitamin D production the regulator of homeostasis
  • Regulation of blood flow & activity of sweat glands
  • Excretion via sweat pores
  • Subcutaneous Tissue (Hypodermis)
  • contains about half of the body’s stored fat
  • padding and insulation and liable for different appearances

LAYERS OF THE SKIN

  1. Epidermis the most superficial layer of skin. Stratified squamous, epithelium, keratinization, stratum, and deepest stratum.
    Stratum Corneum most superficial stratum of the epidermis. Surrounded by lipids that prevent fluid loss.
  2. Dermis ( corium) contains mechanoreceptors that provide the sense of touch and composed of dense collagenous connective tissue containing adipocytes, and macrophages.
  3. Collagen and elastic fibers liable for the structural strength of the dermis.
    cleavage lines or tension lines most resistant to stretch these lines.
    Dermal papillae upper part of the dermis palm, soles, and digits of fingers. Melanin is responsible for skin, eyes, and hair color.
    Albinism Deficiency or absence of melanin.

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